Noun

Noun

Noun is the name of person, place, things, quality, condition etc.
OR  Name is noun.

There are five types of Noun

1.Proper Noun:-  Proper Noun is the name of definite person, place, things, animals etc. Such as

  • Ram   -- Ram is a name of a definite person.
  • Ganga – Ganga is a name of a definite river.
  • Reynold – Reynold is a name of a definite pen.
  • Varanasi -- Varanasi is a name of a definite place.

2-Common Noun:- Common Noun is the name of indefinite person, place, things, condition, quality etc. Such as river, pen, king, city, country, animal, boy, girl etc.

3-Collective Noun:- The Noun which denotes a group of persons, animals or things is called collective noun.Such as

  • Class – A group of boys and girls.
  • Family  -- A group of parents and children.
  • Army – A group of soldiers.

4-Material Noun:- Material noun is the name of substance with which we can make things. OR The noun of which other thing can be made or which is used for eating or drinking is called material noun. Such as Gold, silver, water, milk, iron, sugar, salt etc.

  • A chair is made of wood.
  • Curd is made of milk.
  • This is made of gold.
  • Oil is made from mustard.

Note – Material Noun is generally  uncountable noun but sometimes we use it as countable. In doing so, that material noun becomes or turns into Common Noun. And when material noun is used as Common Noun, we use article (a, an, the) before that material noun. For Example.

Material Noun --  Iron is a metal.
Common Noun --  we press our clothes with an Iron.
Material Noun --  We write on paper.
Common Noun – “The  Hindustan Times” is a paper.

5- Abstract Noun:-It is the name of qualty, action, and state-love, honesty, hatred. In other words we can say that noun which we can’t touch, taste, only we can feel in our hearts by our feelings is called abstract noun. Such as

  • Honesty  is the best policy.
  • Music is divine.
  • Love is God.
  • Childhood  is unique
  • Old age is a second childhood.

Pronoun

Pronoun

The word which is used in place of  Noun is called Pronoun. Such as

  • He is a teacher.
  • We love each other.
  • One can learn English.


Types of Pronoun:- These are following.

1-Personal Pronoun:- The pronoun which is used for any  person, place, animals or things etc. is called Personal  Pronoun. Such as I, we, you, she, he, they, it  etc.
 These are also three types

  1. First Person – I, We
  2. Second Person – You
  3. Third Person – He, She, It, They.


  • He is a teacher.
  • She is a doctor.

Note – Personal Pronoun has three aspect to which we say case. These are follows.

Person
Pronoun
Subjective Case
Objective Case
Possessive Case
Possessive. Adj. &Poss. Pronoun
First Person
I
I
Me
My
mine
We
We
Us
Our
Ours
Second Person
You
You
You
Your
Yours
Third Person
He
He
Him
His
His
She
She
Her
Her
Her/hers
It
It
It
Its
Its
They
They
Them
Their
theirs

2-Demonstrative Pronoun:-When this , that, these or those indicates towards any person or things, then these are called Demonstrative Pronoun. And after this pronoun verb is used. Such as

  • This is pen
  • Those are books.
  • These are farmers
  • That is a mirror.
3-Possessive Pronoun:-The Pronoun which is used to possess the noun is called possessive pronoun. Such as mine, our, hers, his, its, theirs, yours.

  • These books are mine.
  • Those pens are not yours.
  • Hers is a good book.
4-Interrogative Pronoun:-The pronoun which is used to ask question is called Interrogative Pronoun. Such as who, whom, whose, which, what, where, how, why etc.

  • Whose is this child?
  • Who is your father?
  • Whom do you like most?
5-Reciprocal Pronoun:-The pronoun which forms from two pronoun and denotes mutual relation is called Reciprocal Pronoun. There are only pronoun in it and these are “each other” and “one another”.
Each other – denotes relation between two nouns/pronouns.

  • Example.  Ram and Mohan love each others.
Ram and Syam always quarrel with each other.
One another – denotes relation between more than two nouns/pronouns

  • Example.  Ram, Laxman and Bharat love one another.
  • All of them love one another.
6-Reflexive Pronoun:-  The pronoun which is used in place of a such noun which plays both role as a subject and an object is called Reflexive Pronoun. Or
When a subject does any work and result of that work affect the same subject, there reflexive pronoun is used. These pronouns are always written after verbs. That’s why it is used as an object. Such as

  • I killed myself.
  • You are cheating yourself.
  • You should think about yourself.
7- Emphatic Pronoun:- Emphatic pronouns are generally used after subject  of sentence. These pronouns are written in apposition of subject to emphasize subject. Or
When Reflexive Pronoun is used to emphasize noun or pronoun, it is called Emphatic pronoun.

  • I myself can cook the food.
  • He himself stood for speaking.
  • You yourself can do this work.
8-Relative Pronoun:-The Pronoun  which concerns/relates  any noun/pronoun, and used in place of that noun/pronoun, is called Relative pronoun.These are who, what, which, whom, whose, that. Such as

  • I lost the book which you gave me.
  • It is you who can do this work.
9-Compound Relative Pronoun:-When “ever” or “soever” is added with relative pronoun, new made word is called Compound Relative Pronoun. Such as
Who + ever = Whoever

  • Example.  Welcome whoever comes here.
Which + ever = Whichever

  • Example.  Take whichever you like
Whom + soever = Whomsoever

  • Example.  Tell me whomsoever you like to marry.
What + ever = Whatever

  • Example.  I did whatever I liked
10-Distributive Pronoun:- The Pronoun which is used as distribution for noun is called Distributive Pronoun. Such as either, neither, anyone, each of…, every , none of …..etc.

  • Each of these boys will study English.
  • None of you will go there.
  • Take either of the pen.
  • Neither of you can defeat the seniors.
11-Indefinite Pronoun:-The pronoun which does not indicate any definite person or things is called indefinite pronoun.After Indefinite Pronoun, no Noun is used. Such as one, none, any, somebody, nobody, anybody, some, all etc..

  • Some are born great.
  • All are sitting in hall.
  • One must perform one’s duty.
  • Anyone can speak English.
  • I saw some of them.
12-Exclamatory Pronoun:-There is only one pronoun (what) that shows sorrow, joy, and surprise in sentence. Such as

  • What a foolish man he is! ---  SAD
  • What! You don’t know Buddha. ---SURPRISE
  • What! My old friend has come. ---JOY
13- Impersonal Pronoun:-There are only two pronouns (It, they) in it. When “it” or “they”  is not in its meaning , that time these pronouns are called impersonal pronoun. Such as.

  • It rains.
  • It is 2 o,clock by my watch.
  • They say that Lucy is not dead.
Note ---- here meaning of they is” people.” Therefore here, they is used as impersonal pronoun.

14-Zero Relative Pronoun:- The Pronoun that hasn’t its antecedent (its preceding object), is called Zero Relative Pronoun. Such as what.

  • Eat what you like.
  • Do what you want to do.