Figure of Speech

Figure of Speech

There are seven types of figure of speech.

1-Simile:-

Simile is that figure of speech in which comparison is made between two objects of different types which have at least one point in common. And words of comparison (like, so, and as) are used.
Example:-
·         Life is like a dream.
·         The night is as dark as black stone.
Note:- Here, comparison is made between night and black stone. But there is one common thing between them and that is dark.
Note:- comparison of two things of same kind is not simile such as.
·         Ram is as noble as his father.
Here, comparison is made between ram and his father, but both are human.

2-Metaphor

Metaphor is an implied simile in which objects of comparison are identified but words of comparison (as, so, and like) are not used.
·         The camel is the ship of desert.
·         Life is a dream.
Note :- every simile can be expanded into a metaphor and every metaphor is compressed into a simile. Such as
·         Soldiers fought like a lion (simile)
·         Soldiers were lion in fight (metaphor) 

3-Personification :-

It is that figure of speech in which lifeless things and abstracts are thought as living things. Such as
·         Experience is the best teacher.
Note:- Here experience is an abstract but it thought here as a living teacher.

4-Apostrophe:-

It is that figure of speech in which lifeless things, ideas are addressed directly. Apostrophe is a special form of personification such as
·         O death! Where is your sting?
Here death is being addressed directly.

5-Hyperbole:-

Hyperbole is that figure of speech in which things are represented as greater our less, higher or lower, better or worse than they are actually such as.
·         Not to speak about crane even I can pick up the 1000 kilos weight by my one hand.

6-Oxymoron :-

In oxymoron, two opposite ideas are put together such as.
·         This is an open secret.
·         Live is bitter sweet.
Here bitter and sweet are opposite for each other but both are put together.

7-Onomatopoeia :-

It is that figure of speech in which sound of words is recognized or sound of words suggests its meaning such as.
·         I heard the humming of bees.
·         Grunt grunt goes the hog.

Adverb

Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies all part of speech except Noun,Pronoun and Interjection.

How to recognize an Adverb.

=> When any word comes between Article (a,an,the) and Adjective, that word is called Adverb.Such as

  • She is a very good girl.

=> The answer which comes after questioning “ how many, how much, when, where” except noun,pronoun and interjection, is called adverb. Such as

  • He reads English slowly.    How he reads English? Answer is “slowly.” This word is adverb.

Kinds of Adverb: There are three types of adverb

A-Simple Adverb:- 

 Simple adverb is also many types.

1-Adverb of Time:- 

The adverb that answers the question ‘when’, is called Adverb of Time. Such as today, yesterday, now, then, tomorrow, soon, ago, formerly, lately etc.

  • He died yesterday.
  • You may leave now.
  • You are late.
  • Yesterday, I wrote a letter.
  • I have already completed this work.
  • My friend will come tomorrow.

2-Adverb of Place:- 

The adverb that answers the question ‘where’, is called Adverb of Place. Such as here, there, everywhere, nowhere, in, out, inside, outside, away, upstairs, thither, hither, below, above downstairs, forward backward etc.

  • May I come in?
  • I’ll go there
  • He came forward to put his view on the topic.

3-Adverb of Frequency:- 

The adverb that answers the question ‘how often’, is called Adverb of frequency. Such as again, always, hardly, once, often, frequency etc.

  • Always respect your elders.
  • I go to village frequently.
  • I often go there for morning walk.

4-Adverb of Number:-

The adverb that answers the question ‘in what order’, is called Adverb of Number. Such as lastly firstly, secondly, thirdly, twice, trice etc.

  • I watch movie once in a week.
  • Secondly, you can not buy this car.
  • I go to bank twice in a month.

5-Adverb of Manner:-

The adverb that answers the question ‘in what manner’, is called Adverb of Manner. Such as fast, hard, slowly, soundly, well, clearly, bravely, probably, certainly, sadly, only, carefully, really, seriously etc.

  • The dog ran fast after the cat.
  • The boy worked hard.
  • You are seriously very sick.
  • You can speak English well.

6-Adverb of Degree or Quality:- 

The adverb that answers the question ‘how much’ or ‘in what degree’, is called Adverb of Degree or Quality. Such as little, partly, very, much, so, quite, many , fully, half, rather, as enough etc.

  • He is rather sad.
  • I am fully prepared.
  • India has half chance to win the game.
  • I have little money to go there.
  • He is very enthusiastic.
  • I have almost done the work.
  • You are entirely wrong.

7-Adverb of Reason:- 

The Adverb that answers the question ‘why’, is called Adverb of Reason. Such as hence, therefore, so, thus, consequently etc.

  • He didn’t do hard work,therefore, he got failed in examination.
  • He did good preparation for exam, so he got succeeded.

8-Adverb of Affirmation or Negation:- 

The Adverb which answers the question in affirmatively or negatively, is called Adverb of Affirmation or Negation. Such as surely, yes, certainly, no, not , seldom etc.

  • I don’t smoke.
  • Yes, I’ll do your work.
  • Certainly, I can do this work.

B- Interrogative Adverb:- 

When Interrogative words (how, when, why, where etc.) begin any sentence. And give information of time, place, reason manner etc. Then, these words are called Interrogative Adverb. Such as

  • When do you get up?
  • How did you solve this question?
  • Where do you live?
  • Why did you come here?

C-Relative adverb:- 

When Relative Adverb is used as a Conjunction to join two clauses into one, this word is called Relative Adverb. Such as

  • I know the time when he comes.
  • This is the house where I lived before.
  • I’ll tell the way how you should do this work.
  • Can you tell me the reason why he didn’t come here?

Interjection

Interjection 

The word which is used to express joy, surprise, sorrow, contempt etc. is called Interjection. Such as 

Alas!, Ah -----  is used  for sorrow
Hurrah! -----   is used for joy
Barvo!, Weldone! ------ is used for encouragement
Fie! Fie!  ------  is used for contempt
Hello! -----  is used for attention

Preposition

Preposition

Preposition is a word that shows relation between two nouns or pronouns.

Kind of Preposition:

1-Simple Preposition:-

 Simple Prepositions are one word Preposition.  Such as at, on, from, with, upon, up, over, in, after, by, for, off, till etc.

  • The book is under the table.
  • I am watching at the background.
  • I am always with you.

2-Compound Preposition:- 

The preposition which is made by adding any prefix, is called Compound Preposition. Such as about, beneath, beside, aside, before, alone, below, underneath, beyond, outside, inside, across, within, without etc.

  • You can not pass the examination without preparation.
  • I know about you.
  • I’ll reach there before you.
  • I can go to that place alone.
  • You should pay your income tax return within one months.

3-Distinguished Preposition:-

Sometimes “o” and “a” are used like a preposition, then these words are called Distinguished Preposition. Such as

  • It is five o’clock. =means = five on clock -> Here “o” means “on” so ‘O’ is a Distinguished Preposition.
  • I purchased cloth at one yard s rupee.  Here ‘a rupee’ means ‘for a rupee’ so”A” is a Distinguished Preposition.

4-Participial Preposition:- 

The Preposition in which ‘ing’ is added is called Participial Preposition. Such as during, concerning, considering, pending, notwithstanding, respecting, admitting, regarding etc.

  • You played well, considering you inexperience.
  • Still you don’t know anything regarding this topic.
  • You had less chance for succeeding, notwithstanding you tried your best.

5-Special Preposition:- 

There are only two Special Preposition. That is But & Than.
A- Than:- This word is conjunction but sometimes it is used as a preposition. Such as

  • I can not accept less than thirty rupees for this book.

B- But:-This word is also conjunction but sometimes it is also used like a conjunction that time its meaning is “except” or “in addition to” or “besides.” Such as

  • What could I do but request?
  • None but brave deserves the fair.

C- A:- sometimes “A” is also used as a Special Preposition. Such as

  • My wages are 100 rupees a day.
  • I meet him once a week.
  • Milk is being sold Rs. 20/- a liter.

6-Prepositional Phrase:- 

When a noun is used between two prepositions, those words are called Prepositional Phrase. Such as by means of, with regard to, because of, instead to, on account of, in opposition to, for the sake of, in course of time, in front of, in order to, in place of etc.

  • The man dies in course of time.
  • You will have to work hard in order to pass the examination.
  • I choose English in place of Sanskrit.
  • There is a gate in front of my house.
  • Armies give their life for the sake of their country.
  • He didn’t come in class because of illness.

Conjunction

Conjunction

Conjunction is a word which adds two words or sentences, is called Conjunction.

It is classified into two parts.

1-Co-ordinating Conjunction:-

The conjunction by equal the words or sentences of equal rank is joined, is called Co-ordinating Conjunction. It is classified into four parts.

i-Cumulative Conjunction:

 It only adds one sentence or word to another. Such as asn, both…and, as well as, not only… *. but also, both.

  • You are both clever and beautiful.
  • I as well as you  passed the examination.
  • Robbers not only looted the village but also set homes on fire.

ii-Adversative Conjunction:

It adds two sentences showing opposition or contrast. Such  but, still, yet, nevertheless, only, however etc.

  • he is poor, still he is very honest.
  • You not good at English, yet you passed the English exam very well.
  • Only you can do this work.
  • He is rich still he unhappy.
  • She was inexperience, nevertheless she decided to play the game.

iii-Alternative Conjunction:

It adds two sentences or words showing alternatives or indicating choice between them, is called a Alternative or Disjunctive Conjunction. Such as or,either…or, neither….nor, otherwise, else.

  • What will you take tea or coffee.
  • you either want to buy something or go to home.
  • I’ll neither buy anything nor go to home.


IV. Illative Conjunction:

The conjunction that Expresses  some inference, is called Illative Conjunction of Inferential Conjunction. Such as Therefore, for, then, so.

  • You worked hard so you will win.
  • You got failed for you did not work hard.
  • He didn’t come in class for he is ill.

2-Subordinating Conjunction:- 

A subordinating conjunction connects a subordinate clause to a principal clause. Such as As if, as soon as, as, though,  so that, even if, when, because, since, although, than, unless, until, while, whereas, that, because, since before,whenever, whether, except, after,if,so far as, even though, such that, in order that, in order to, inasmuch as, as long as  etc.

  • I’ll not request even if I get failed.
  • I’ll not beg even if I die.
  • He will not come in party unless you invite him.
  • Though he worked hard, he couldn’t pass the examination.
  • We did not go out because it was raining.
  • Do your work  as you have  been directed.
  • This is the home where our family used to live.

Adjective

Adjective

Adjective is a word which qualifies or modifies any noun-pronoun or gives some extra knowledge about it, is called Adjective.

  • Sita was an ideal wife.
  • Tom was a naughty boy.

Kinds of Adjective:- There are ten types of Adjective.


1-Adjective of Quality:-
The Adjective which explains quality, fault, aspect, color of any person or things is called Adjective of quality. Such as

  • Brutus was an ideal man of Rome.
  • I have a white cow.
  • I am black.

2-Proper Adjective:- The Adjective which is formed by Proper Noun is called Proper Adjective. Such as

Proper Noun
Proper Adjective
India
Indian
America
American
England
English
China
Chinese


  • I like Chinese toys.
  • The English language is not very difficult.
  • Indian farmers are very hard worker.

3-Interrogative Adjective:- The Adjective which is used to ask question, is called Interrogative adjective. Such as what, which, whose etc. And after these words, always noun is used.

  • Whose son are you?
  • What things do you want?
  • Which book do you like most?

4-Possessive Adjective:- The word which denotes possession is called Possessive Adjective. Possessive adjective are my, your, our, their, his, her, its etc.

  • You are my friend.
  • Sita has completed her work.
  • I am satisfied with your work.

5-Demonstrative Adjective:-The adjective which is used to indicate the person, place, things, animals etc. ,is called Demonstrative Pronoun. Demonstrative Pronouns are this, that, these, those. After these words, noun is used. Such as

  • This book is good.
  • Those flowers are beautiful.
  • Is that pen not good?
  • These students are very good.

6-Distributive Adjective:- The adjective that shows the distribution of person or things separately, is called Distributive Adjective. Such as each, every, either, neither etc.

  • Every boy got a prize.
  • Every girl enjoyed.
  • I bought neither pen.
  • I shall buy either pen.

Note: --- Each, either, neither are Pronoun and Adjective, but “every” is only Adjective.
“Each of them“ can be and “everyone of them” can be  but  “Every of them” can not be
7-Adjective of Number:-The Adjective that shows the number of noun or pronoun, is called Adjective of Number or Numeral Adjective.After Numeral Adjective, countable noun is used.
 There are three types of Numeral Adjective.

  1. Definite Adjective of Number
  2. Indefinite Adjective of Number
  3. Distributive Numeral Adjective
  1. Definite Adjective of Number:-It is used to denote exact number /position of subject.  It is also four types
    1. Cardinal :- This definite numeral adjective denotes the number of noun/pronoun. Such as one, two, three, four……etc.
    2. Ordinal:- It denotes the series/serial of noun or pronoun. Such as first, second, third, fourth, fifth…….etc.
    3. Multiplicative:- It denotes multiplication. Such as single, double, triple, fourfold…..etc.
    4. Fractional:- It denotes the fraction of noun or pronoun. Such as Half, one third, two third, one fourth..etc.
  2. Indefinite Numeral Adjective:-The adjective which does not denote the definite number of noun or pronoun is called Indefinite Numeral Adjective.Such as some, any, no, most, enough, etc.

  • Some boys are playing in the field.
  • I have some books on grammar.
  • I have no extra pen.
  • I have taught many boys.
  • All men must die.
  • Mr. Washington passed several examinations.
  1. Distributive Numeral Adjective:-These Adjectives are similar to Distributive Adjectives and used to indicate nouns as individual or separately. Such as

  • Each of students will do their work.
  • Every farmer should cultivate.
  • I bought neither of clothes.
8-Adjective of Quantity:- The Adjective that shows the quantity of noun or pronoun is called Adjective of quantity. Such as whole, some, little, all, few, no, any, enough, etc. After Adjective of quantity, uncountable noun is be used.

  • Give me some milk.
  • They have enough good.
  • I ate some rice.
  • He has little knowledge.
  • She ate whole apple.

9-Emphasizing Adjective:-The word which is used to emphasize the noun or pronoun is called Emphasizing Adjective. Such as “own”  and “very”

  • Mind your own business.
  • I am my own boss.
  • This is the very man who helped me.

10-Exclamatory Adjective:-The word which is used to show surprise, joy,sorrow etc. is called Exclamatory Adjective. Such as “what”

  • What a boy you are!
  • What an idea!
  • What a game!
  • What a lucky she is!

Verb

Verb
The word which tells something about person, place, or things etc., is called Verb.
It is classified into two parts.
A-Main Verb / Principal Verb:- It is also classified into two parts.
i-Transitive Verb: - In Transitive Verb emotion passes from subject to object. Or action of verb is passed from a subject to an object, that verb is called Transitive verb. Transitive verb has succeeding verb.Such as give, take, bring, teach, see, watch,sell, send etc.

  • I’ll give a book to you.
  • I watch a very good movie last night.
  • I can see whole world on internet.
ii-Intransitive Verb:- It is opposite of transitive verb. It doesn’t have any succeeding object like Transitive verb. It only points to a condition. Such as dance, cry, weep, sleep, wake up, laugh, go, come, walk, stand, sit, run etc.

  • you danced very well.
  • Child is crying .
  • A shouldn’t sleep much while chasing his target.
  • She laughs very much.
  • Let’s go.
  • I walk daily in the morning.
B-Helping Verb / Auxiliary Verb:- It is also classified into two parts.
i-Primary Auxiliary Verb:- Primary Auxiliary verbs are am, are, is, was, were, has,have, had, do, does.

  • I am good at English.
  • You are a good cricket player.
  • He is a doctor.
  • They were very nice.
  • I have much money.
  • She hasn’t any fear.
  • Ram does his work very well.
ii-Modal Auxiliary Verb:-  Modal Auxiliary Verbs are shall, will, can, could, would, should, may, might, ought to, much, dare, need.

  • You should respect you elders.
  • You can do this work.
  • May I come in?
  • You must study.